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The relationship between periodontal disease and vitamin D

There is conflicting evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and periodontal disease. Studies were conducted to clarify and confirm this connection.

Methods
The study was carried out:

Based on a survey conducted in Canada on health measures in which respondents aged 13 to 79 took part;
the state of vitamin D was determined by measuring the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) in plasma;
using the gum index and the estimated loss of attachment, the state of periodontal disease was determined.
What is periodontitis?
Microbial biofilms that form on the teeth cause periodontal inflammation, which leads to chronic periodontitis.

Periodontitis Prevention
Prevention is important for the timely detection of periodontal disease. Photo source pexels.com

Bacterial products and the host’s immune system response to these products destroy the tissues that hold the teeth and alveolar bone. Destructive tissue is a consequence of chronic periodontitis, which provokes tooth loss in adults. Prevention of this disease is very important, since tooth loss is not only a cosmetic problem. Their absence is reflected:

on a state of nutrition;
gastrointestinal tract;
quality of life in general.
The relationship with systemic diseases has been established:

of cardio-vascular system;
and type II diabetes.
Vitamin D
This is a fat-soluble vitamin that the body can receive in several ways:

due to exposure to sunlight;
from food;
from food additives.
Vitamin D Products
Products containing vitamin D. Photo source unsplash.com

He is involved in many processes of the body:

regulates the absorption of calcium from the intestines;
maintains concentration of calcium in plasma;
promotes bone mineralization, their density depends on its number (at a sufficient level there is a low risk of fractures);
regulates the effect on the immune response, either stimulating or suppressing it (for example, bactericidal activity improves due to the production of active vitamin D).
The sun helps produce vitamin D
Vitamin D is produced in the body by exposure to the sun. Photo source picjumbo.com

Since one of the characteristics of chronic periodontitis is bone loss, which is caused by the host’s reaction to bacterial plaque, it appears that a lack of vitamin D can affect the development and progression of periodontal disease. And two large cross-sectional studies have confirmed the alleged link.

However, the most recent major prospective and recent cross-sectional study did not reveal a connection between the two.

Conclusion
Despite convincing evidence from some cross-sectional studies, important longitudinal and recent cross-sectional studies have not confirmed the association between vitamin D levels and periodontal disease.

And the results of our study, which was conducted on a representative sample of adults, have little evidence of this connection.

Vitamin D Balance
Vitamin D balance counteracts the development of periodontal disease. Photo source unsplash.com

Probably, to fully clarify the effect of vitamin D levels on the progression of periodontal disease, longer-term prospective studies are needed.

This article was prepared based on the materials of the dentalnews.com website with the support of dentists at the One-to-One Clinic on Voikovskaya.

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